There is the New Age principle of karma which in a sense measures the good and bad you've done and with the bad (karma) hopefully getting worked out and eventually disappearing. This, in different words, exists in traditional religions where it is said in Deuteronomy 'we die for our sins.' In other words, we pay for our ways. Karma implies that we have more incarnations to work this out, and that it is a subtle process requiring time, more than one lifetime.
Then there is the view that the universe is indifferent, that in the scheme of things our actions affect only us. You are an island unto yourself and have to make your own rules.
A thinking mind at one point or another has considered both perspectives.